Dr Iveta Garaiova

Gut microbiota in nutrition and health

Human gut microbiota plays a key role in disease, nutrition and health. Antibiotics, medications and specific food ingredients influence the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota. Targeting the gut microbiome with probiotics, prebiotics or dietary fibre is beneficial for human health. The analysis of 22 systematic reviews (313 trials, 46 826 participants) showed that …

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Upper respiratory symptoms in athletes

Upper tract respiratory symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, sore throat, runny and blocked nose are common among athletes during heavy training and competition. This review focuses on the aetiology of upper respiratory symptoms, mucosal immunity, the role of the gut and airway microbiomes and the use of probiotics and prebiotics to maintain athlete health.   …

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The MiBioGen consortium initiative

Recently, the MiBioGen (microbiome genome) consortium initiative was announced with the aim to gain a better understanding of the gut microbiome role as a mediator between genetic predisposition and health or disease in humans. The meta-analysis of human genome-microbiome association studies includes 18 population-level cohorts from countries in Europe, North America and Asia and 18,965 …

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Probiotics and acidosis in healthy children

A review of five randomised controlled trials from 2005 to 2017 with 544 healthy infants (one day to 12 months of age) showed that D-lactic acid producing probiotic bacteria and fermented infant formulas did not cause D-lactic acidosis in healthy children. The only reported cases of paediatric D-lactic acidosis were in children with short bowel …

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Gut metabolome and abdominal obesity

The associations of metabolic products derived from gut microbes with age, obesity, host genetics and gut microbiome composition were investigated in the faecal samples of 786 predominantly female twins from the TwinsUK cohort (a national twin registry). The faecal metabolome was largely associated with gut microbial composition (67.7%) and only modestly influenced by host genetics …

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Gut microbiome development in neonates

Various factors influence the gut microbiome development in neonates during prenatal, perinatal and postnatal periods, including maternal diet and lifestyle, mode of birth, feeding, antibiotic use and length of gestation. The reciprocal relationship between gut microbiota and gastrointestinal tract development from in utero to postnatal life is discussed in more details.   Link: View the …

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Probiotics and metabolic health in pregnancy

The effect of probiotics and metabolic health in pregnancy on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy and obese pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was evaluated in the meta-analysis of 10 randomised controlled trials. The significant correlations were found between probiotic supplementation and lower fasting serum insulin in healthy pregnant women (5 …

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A relationship between the gut microbiota and atherosclerosis

This study investigated the role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis, a major cause of heart attack and stroke. 316 patients attending vascular prevention clinics in Canada were divided into three distinct phenotypes; (i) 98 patients with much less carotid plaque than predicted by traditional risk factors (Protected), (ii) 138 patients with plaque levels as predicted …

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Gut microbiome and brain

Bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and brain plays a key role in maintaining brain health. This review focused on the mechanism of this interaction and modulatory role of the gut microbiota in brain-related pathological conditions, such as anxiety, depression, stress, and cognition.  In vitro, in vivo, and human studies providing evidence of the microbiota-gut-brain …

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Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection

The aim of this recent study was to find out whether the probiotic supplementation alongside antibiotic treatment will reduce the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children. Individual data of 6851 participants from 18 published randomised controlled trials were included in the statistical analysis. 72.2% of the studies were conducted in adult hospitalised …

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